Guayanilla covers approximately 109.7 square kilometers (42 square miles). The population is 23,072 (2000 Census). Guayanilla is divided into the sectors of Pueblo, Barrero, Boca, Cedro, Consejo, Indios, Jagua-Pasto, Jaguas, Llano, Macaná, Magas, Plata, Quebrada Honda, Quebradas, Rufina and Sierra Baja.
The coast of the municipality is part of the southwestern coast of the island. This zone is considered one of the most important tropical marine areas in the Caribbean.
Previously, the economy of Guayanilla depended on growing and processing sugar cane. Later, this was replaced by industries such as petrochemicals. Today, the municipality has a variety of small factories.
Guayanilla is bordered on the north by the municipality of Adjuntas, on the east by Peñuelas, on the south by the Caribbean Sea and on the west by the municipality of Yauco. Geographically, it is part of the western region of the southern coastal plain. To the north, on its border with Adjuntas, the region is mountainous. Elevations there in the Pasto and Jagua Pasto sectors reach 1,000 meters (3,280 feet) above sea level.
The municipality's hydrological system consists of the following bodies of water: the Guayanilla, Macaná and Yauco Rivers. The Guayanilla River originates in the Jagua Pasto sector and runs some 23 kilometers (14.5 miles) and empties into the Caribbean Sea at Guayanilla bay. Tributaries of this river are Las Canales, Guamá, Grande de Sierra Baja, Rodadero, Limón, Motete and Consejo streams. The Macaná River is shorter. Its tributary is Los Cedros stream. The Yauco River flows through the Boca sector and empties into the sea at the Port of Guayanilla, where the land is swampy.
Located in the coastal zone of this municipality is Vaquero point, near the border with the municipality of Guánica. To the east are the Ventana, Verraco and Pepillo Points and the Guayanilla bay port. From the coast, the keys of Mata Redonda and María Langa can be seen. Guayanilla also has a cave called Convento, through which the Cedros stream runs.
Among its natural resources is the Guilarte forest, which occupies part of the northern lands of Guayanilla. Like many coastal areas, Guayanilla has mangrove swamps. In the area of the port and Guayanilla bay there are 330 cuerdas, or approximately one million square meters, of mangroves, among which the red mangrove is abundant.
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