The pursuit of a means for expressing the criollo soul and way of being was fulfilled at last with the arrival of the printing press in 1806, which besides creating a boomboom: A Latin American literary movement that flourished in the 1960s, characterized by technical innovation with regard to traditional forms of the novel. The language employed shows the speech of different social classes, and the action is narrated by a multiplicity of simultaneous voices. The boom novel breaks with circumstantial reality, giving free rein to creative imagination, in a style known as magical realism. in journalism marked the beginning of literary activity in Puerto Rico. Following the publication of the first Puerto Rican newspaper, the Gaceta de Puerto Rico (1806-1902), a few other newspapers with a more literary bent, such as the Diario Liberal y de Variedades de Puerto Rico (1821-1822), were circulated. The first generations of Puerto Rican Romantic writers became known through the Boletín Mercantil, a San Juan newspaper founded in 1839. María Bibiana Benítez (1783-1873), the first woman poet in Puerto Rico, wrote a eulogy in verse dedicated to the weekly publication, expressing her hope that the new newspaper would kindle literary activity. Indeed, it was in the pages of the Boletín that local literary activity really began.
The Aguinaldo Puertorriqueño (1843) was printed on the same press as the Boletín Mercanti, and comprised original writings in prose and verse that marked the beginning of Romanticismromanticism: 1. A movement that began in Europe in the 18th century as a reaction to the Enlightenment, which preached the supremacy of reason and thought. Romanticism, in contrast, valued subjectivity, uncontrolled and irrational individual feeling, passionate fervor for the spiritual, the mysterious, and the self-destructive love inspired by an unreal, unreachable woman of the Romantic's dreams. Collectively, this subjectivity was projected in the search for the Volkgeist, the spirit of the people, a search for national identity expressed in patriotic fervor, which led to the formation of the European states. Also work with nature and its double face enigmatic and bewitching. 2. The period of Western culture during which this literary school predominated. in Puerto Rico. Among its collaborators was Alejandrina Benítez, the first woman poet of the Romantic school in Puerto Rico. A year later, a group of Puerto Rican university students in Barcelona published the álbum Puertorriqueño (1844), in which a sense of national pride is evident. Outstanding among the collaborators were Manuel A. Alonso (1822-1889), author of El Jíbaro (1849), a work that initiates the criollismocriollismo: A Latin American literary movement during the first three decades of the 20th century inspired in criollo tradition. style in Puerto Rican literature. Other writers that showed interest in the idea of the criollo during the 19th century…
Romantic Poetrypoetry: An expression of beauty or aesthetic feeling through verse. Generally, the work has a certain rhyme and rhythm that favors the aesthetic qualities of language over content.
The development of Romantic poetry had two different periods. The first period encompasses from the beginning of literary activity on the Island until 1880, and was characterized by an exaggerated sentimentality. Later, the movement became more akin to BecquerianBecquerian: 1. Pertaining to Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer or his work such as Becquerian rhymes.
2. Having characteristics of the work of this Spanish poet; a Becquerian sentimental tone. Post-Romanticismpost-romanticism: An artistic movement that followed on romanticism and retained some of its characteristics., characterized by a delicacy and tenderness of expression. José Gautier Benítez (1851-1880), Alejandrina Benítez's son, became the most outstanding exponent of this first Romantic period. In his poetry he surmounted the aesthetic constraints of the school, prevalent on the Island, that was an imitation of the works of Spanish writers then in vogue, José de Espronceda and José Zorrilla. His strong patriotic sense is demonstrated in the trilogy dedicated to Puerto Rico: Ausencia, Regreso and A Puerto Rico. Other authors of the first Romantic lyrical period…
The second period of Romantic poetry in Puerto Rico, a transition period between Romanticism and Modernismmodernism: An artistic movement that developed in Hispanic America and Spain in the late 19th century and the early 20th century. The movement was characterized by its creative independence and fixation on formal perfection. The modernists used an affected vocabulary and held the swan to be the symbol of beauty. Exoticism was a recurrent theme, especially with regard to Oriental cultures., was defined by French Parnassianismparnassianism: A French poetic movement during the second half of the 19th century which saw a return to the sentimentalist and subjectivist excesses of romanticism. The movement was characterized by a preference for the aesthetic models of classical antiquity, especially Greek antiquity. It was also characterized by the importance given to the purely formal perfection of the literary work. Preferred subjects were art and the exotic. This movement was decisively influential in the Latin American literary current called modernism.. Luis Muñoz Rivera (1859-1916) was the most important practitioner of this literary style, which had emerged as a reaction against the Spanish despotic colonial regime. His verse was characterized by civic and political themes. Muñoz Rivera's poetry is distinguished by the meticulousness of its Parnassian formality. Sísifo, a poem of deep political reflection, is considered his most important work in this style. Other important poets of the Romanticism in Puerto RicoOther important poets of the romanticism in Puerto Rico: Other important romantic poets in Puerto Rico are José de Jesús Domínguez, José A. Negrón Sanjurjo, José Agustín Aponte, Félix Matos Bernier, and José Mercado.…
Romantic Theatertheater: A literary genre generally containing dialogue and created for the purpose of being performed on a stage before an audience.
During the second half of the 19th century, the theater was dominated by Romanticism and Eclecticismeclecticism: A philosophical school that attempts to reconcile doctrines that would seem to be the best suited or most plausible, although having various origins., which were the prevailing styles in Spain. The Theater in Puerto Rico gathered impetus under the aegis of Alejandro Tapia y Rivera (1826-1882). His best known works include: La cuarterona and La parte del león (1880). Later, Salvador Brau (1842-1912) became the most prominent figure in 19th century local theater, with works such as La vuelta al hogar (1877) and Los horrores del triunfo (1887), which were quite successful on the local stage. During the last decades of the 19th century, there were several playwrights that were influenced by Spanish Post-Romantics, such as Ramón Marín, Manuel María Sama and Gabriel Ferrer Hernández.
Tapia y Rivera was also the most prominent figure in fiction. Some of his most important works include La palma del cacique (1862), Leyenda histórica sobre el pasado indígena and La leyenda de los veinte años. Other works are CofresíCofresí: (1876) Regarding the life of this Puerto Rican pirate. and the companion works Póstumo el transmigrado and Póstumo el envirginado (both written in 1882), a critical overview of the society of his times, in which he addressed philosophical questions and feministfeminist: 1. Pertaining to feminism, a social doctrine that favors granting women rights and competencies heretofore reserved for men. 2. A follower of feminism. ideas that were ahead of their time in Hispanic countries.
Eugenio María de Hostos (1839-1903) also wrote Romantic fiction. He was the author of La peregrinación de Bayoán, which is considered the first true Puerto Rican novelnovel: A literary work in prose of some length in which fictitious, or partially fictitious, events are narrated, for the purpose of giving readers aesthetic pleasure to be derived from the description or depiction of events, characters, emotions, and customs.. His La tela de araña, was a novel that was entered into a Real Academia Española competition in 1864, but remained unpublished until 1992.
The Romantic Essayessay: A prose work in which the author develops his or her ideas on a given topic from a personal point of view in a personal style. The object is to defend a personal and subjective opinion on a topic, whether humanistic, philosophical, political, social, cultural, or of some other nature.
Following on the work of Manuel Alonso, Tapia y Rivera continued to develop the essay form. He was the author of important works such as Vida del pintor puertorriqueño José Campeche (1855) and Noticias históricas de Don Ramón Power (1873), both of which attempt to embody the criollo essence, and of Mis memorias o Puerto Rico como lo encontré y como lo dejo and Conferencias sobre estética y literatura, which are considered the best of his essays.
Eugenio María de Hostos is among the writers that initiated the essay form in Latin America. Hostos wrote about issues related to the social, economic, and political order of what he calls "the Greater Homelandthe greater homeland: This refers to all of Latin America.". His Tratado de moral social represents the culmination of the Hostosian creed. Hostos was the author of many distinguished critical essays on the literature of the Americas, as well as world literature. His Madre isla, a volume of his Complete works, is devoted to Puerto Rico. Other Puerto Rican Romantic essayists…
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